U-zZ4m1JqvFJIQt2G-tyy-Cj5VI TELUGU PADMASALI Blog: Bhaavana Rishi - An Interesting Article - RESEARCH

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Wednesday, November 16, 2011

Bhaavana Rishi - An Interesting Article - RESEARCH



REMNANTS OF ANDHRA CULTURE IN ANCIENT EUROPE


* Sep. 24th, 2008 at 4:44 PM


Abstract:

The legend of Aeneas is compared with a corresponding legend preserved in the family books of weaving castes among the Andhras in India. Phonetic affinities between corresponding names of the two legends are studied. Phonetic affinities between words in European languages and their corresponding words in Telugu are studied. The functions of some divinities of ancient Roman religion are compared with Telugu words having comparative functions. Some traditions of ancient Romans were compared with those of the Andhras.

Nomenclature

CT. Colloquial Telugu
F. French
G. Greek
Gm. German
I. Italian
L. Latin
ME. Medieval English
OE. Old English
OF. Old French
OI. Old Irish
ON. Old Norse
OT. Old Teutonic
S. Spanish
T. Telugu
* Consonant form of a word
** Re-arrange consonant form of a word


1. Introduction


Many researchers of ancient Roman religion feel that we do not have much material about it. Most of what had survived had become obscure long before the time of classical Latin writers whose works have come down to us. Virgil, Cicero, Varro and many others of that time were much interested on various aspects of the ancient Roman religion. They took great pains to investigate the facts and the meaning of their ancient rites. However, they were hampered by imperfect and incomplete texts concerning the origins and early history of that religion. Further, they had to interpret the available material in the light of what they had themselves been taught, using the Greek methods of writing history and the Greek concepts of religion. The meager character of the material and the use of some very archaic language made them difficult to interpret. As a result, most of the conclusions written in classical Latin texts were quite different from the native Roman beliefs (Rose 1959;158-159).


Some researchers think that history of every country begins with mythology. It often happens that myths of one land get tangled up with those of other lands. A myth is often compared to a snow ball which rolls down a mountain side gathering foreign substances like snow, earth, rocks and others such that its nucleus is lost to sight. However, with some effort, some of the historical events can be established from myths. Since the time of Heinrich Schliemann's sensational excavation in West Asia, archaeologists and historians have been respecting myths, legends and traditions of people no matter how improbable they may appear. Let us consider some legends of ancient Rome for possible clues to some of the origins of its religion.


2. The legend of Aeneas (Virgil,The Aeneid)


The Aeneid written by Virgil is the largest epic in classical Latin mythology. It describes the legend of Aeneas. Some parts of it were left without the final touches (Fowler 1933; 410). Fragments of material on Aeneas have come down to us through the works of other classical Latin authors.

The following is the selective summary of the Aeneid:



Aeneas started from a country in Asia with his followers in search of the land of his ancestors. He was to go to a western land where the Tiber river flowed Moved on by destiny, he wandered round the seven seas for many years carrying his home gods (1.31-32). Aeneas' father appeared to him in a vision and warned that the people of Latium are tough and primitive (5.722-734). Later, he passed by the land of Circe, daughter of the Sun. From her palace groaning roars of angry lions resentful at their captivity were heard through the small hours. The lions were said to be men once upon a time and turned into beasts by Circe (7.10-20). At last, Aeneas landed at Latium. A strange portend occurred at the court of Latinus, king of the land. The dress of his daughter, Lavinia, appeared to have been set on fire. At an oracle, Latinus was advised not to seek alliance from Latin race and the would be son-in-law shall come from overseas (7.74-100). The ambassadors of Aeneas went to the court of Latinus and offered him regalia of their empire and many embroidered vestments as gifts. Latinus recognized that Aeneas was to become his son-in-law. He promised to give his daughter in marriage to Aeneas annulling her earlier betrothal with Turnus (7.243-273), king of a neighboring land, who was said to have captured many cities in war (12.21-23). Turnus came to know about it and ordered his army commanders to march against Latinus and the new comers (7.465-470). The first to arm his men and enter the war was the irreligious Mezentius, king of Agylla and friend of Turnus (7.647-653). Some fighters on his side wore feline skins. Aeneas traveled to a distant land for war alliance with King Evander, his relative, who ruled on Palatine Hill (8.90-100). Aeneas told him that Daunian people were about to subjugate the whole of Hesperia, and the sea boards of Tuscan and Adriatic (8.146-149). Evander told him that Turnus was menacing them. Also, their neighbors were oppressed by insolent tyranny, damnable massacres and cruel force of Mezentius (8.473-484). Goddess Venus presented to Aeneas divine weapons made by God Vulcan (8.528-536). Two messengers were sent from Latium in quest of Aeneas to bring him back soon (9.226-310). The men of Aeneas at Latium closed up their ranks and stiffened resistance. Turnus went in twice at the thick of the foe, but the whole garrison came running to form up against him and he fled from the battle field (9.788-818). Aeneas returned to Latium. Turnus was made to flee from the battle field (10.657-660). Mezentius dashingly took Turnus' place, but was soon felled by Aeneas (10.689-786). Before dying, Mezentius admitted that he was beset by his own people's bitter hatred (10,904-905). Tiger skin dressed princess Camilla (11.577), with a retinue of female warriors, entered the field (11.653- 659). Seeing her example, Italian women took to poles and stakes to defend their city (11.890-895). Turnus invited Aeneas for a duel to settle who would have Lavinia (12.78-80). While the terms of the truce were being accepted, war broke out again (12.282). Aeneas was wounded by an arrow (12.318-326). His goddess mother, Venus, brought health giving ambrosia and cured his wound (12.411-424). Aeneas raced to the battle field with his men. The men of Turnus took to their heels and fled. Turnus was again made to flee from the battle field (12.450-475). At last, the duel was fought and Turnus was killed.


3. The Corresponding Andhra Legend (Swamy,1968; Sarma,1969)


The legend of Sage Bhaavana is preserved in the family books of the weaving caste people among the Andhras in India. Fragments of the legend were said to have been extracted from Markandeya Purana, Brahmanda Purana and Padma Samhita. The following is the selective summary of the legend:


In a town near the hill where the sun sets, there was a demon named Kaaluva. He was menacing the Devas (divine people). He was torturing the pious and raping their women. He was assisted by Moolaka, another demon. Further, the Devas were suffering due to lack of woven clothing and a proper religion. When Devas prayed god, they were told that a man will soon be born in his image and he will come to their land to help them. Maharshi Markandeya begot two sons and the younger one was named Bhaavana. Dhumra, daughter of fire god, was the mother of the children.


A prophecy was given that Bhaavana would kill the enemies of his brother. Bhaavana became proficient in the arts of war and also in the religious knowledge. He vowed to offer a tiger skin to god. One day, the Devas appeared to him (probably in a dream) and told him that he was destined to reach the land of Devas to get them rid of the demons and to teach them weaving and religion. A sage told Bhaavana that he has to go to a land where the daughter of Sun has kept tigers in captivity, and that she would marry him. Bhaavana wandered over seven seas and many lands in search of tigers. Finally, he reached a land called Arca and met the daughter of Sun named Bhadra. Her body was bright like thunder bolt and her eyes resembled petals of a blue lotus. Earlier, a sage told her mother that a hero would come to their land and marry her daughter. Bhadra recognized in Bhaavana the man who was to become her husband. Bhaavana asked her to give him a tiger. She told that she would give one of her tigers if he would marry her. He told her that he has to fulfill his vow first. (In Hindu religion, fulfilling a religious vow is more important than pleasures of married life). He took the tiger and left.


After some time, Bhadra has sent two messengers to Bhaavana that he should return to her without further delay. Bhaavana goes to her land accompanied by his people. The marriage of Bhaavana and Bhadra was performed on a grand scale. Kaaluva was told that the Devas were leading a happy life after being taught weaving and religion by Bhaavana. The demon challenged the bravery of Bhaavana and declared war. The warriors of Kaaluva could not stand against Bhaavana and his people, and started fleeing from the battle field. Kaaluva tried to stop them threatening death to those who flee. Bhaavana tried to kill Kaaluva four times in duel fights, but he escaped death every time. A fierce battle ensued and Bhaavana was wounded by Kaaluva. Goddess Rama, foremother of Bhaavana, brought ambrosia and cured his wound. Bhaavana traveled to a distant land for war alliance with his brother. Many gods presented divine weapons to Bhaavana. Bhadra entered the battle field with a retinue of tigers. Bhaavana hurled his divine weapon and killed Kaaluva. Hearing the news, demon Moolaka came to the battle field and soon fell at the hands of Bhaavana. Bhaavana became the divine ancestor of weaving castes in the Andhras.


4. Comparison of the two legends


History says that Gauls marched against Rome and threatened to destroy it unless all the women and girls were turned over to them. The Indian legend probably refers to a similar incident which happened in remote past. The legend appears to belong to the period when vowels did not exist in script. Even now, Hebrew and a few other languages do not have vowels in their scripts. Further, the Etymologists do not consider vowels while investigating phonetic affinities between words of different languages. The name of the hero in the Indian legend is Bhaavana in Sanskrit and Baapaniaya in Telugu. The Telugu name may have been interpreted in the ancient Italian manuscripts as Baba Aaniaya. The word Baba is cognate with Papa in European languages and Baabu (father) in Telugu. Aeneas was referred to as father Aeneas at some places in the Aeneid (5.348). Paphean was an epithet of Venus because she possesses Mount Paphus. The name Baapaniya may also have been interpreted as Paphean Aeneas. Annamiaya and Nanniaya ware old Telugu names in historic times. Aaniaya could have been an ancient Telugu name which was written as Aenias in the Roman legend. Bhaavana was born to a goddess, who was the daughter of fire god, by a sage on the peaks of Himalayas with their many wooded folds. Similarly, Aeneas was born to a goddess by a mortal man on the peaks of Idalium with its many wooded folds. He is said to have started from the Troy city. The Puranas say Drona was the former name of the Himalayas. The modern Plate Tectonic theory says that the Himalayas formed due to the pressing of the Indian sub-continent plate against the Eurasian plate. Himalaya means abode of snow. Drona was the name of those mountains when the ice cover did not form yet. The Andhra legend belongs to that period of time. The name Drona may have been interpreted as Troy by the European legend writers. Further, the text of the Aeneid specifically states that the ambassadors of Aeneas went to the court of Latinus and introduced themselves as dwellers of a tropical country about the equator which was once the greatest empire the sun could see as it traveled from the very east of the sky (7.217-227). The culture of India has spread to most of the countries in the East since ancient times. Herodotos (3.98) wrote that the Indians lived the farthest towards the east and the sunrise, of all the inhabitants of Asia. Many other classical Greek texts depict India as the eastern most country of the inhabitable world. Their writings were probably efforts in interpreting some ancient Indian sources which wrote of India as the eastern most country inhabited by the Indo-European race. The name Bhaarata Khanda (continent of Bhaarata) of the Puranas represents this concept to indicate the land between Bhaaratam (India) in the east and Britain in the west; the name Bhaarata Varsha (sub-continent of Bhaarata) represents India proper. The racial integrity of the Indo-Europeans was known to Indians since ancient times.


The brother of Bhavana was said to have been born after the chanting of five sacred Mantras, and he was named accordingly. The name Evander is cognate with Mantra. In the family books, Bhadra has many names. Laavanya Lata is one given in the list of her names. The name Lavinia daughter of Latinus of the ancient Italian legends may obviously have been interpreted as Lavanya Lata by the ancient Indians. Turnus may have belonged to ancient race whose name is similar to Gaul. Hence in the Andhra legend, he was given the name Kaaluva. The Kaaluva Sena also is given indicating it is the name of the race. Kaala in Telugu means darkness; and Kaaluva means connection with darkness, snakes and excess sexual instinct. Kaalu in Telugu means 'leg'; Italy looks like a leg in the map. The name Daunus, father of Turnus, is cognate with Danuja which means 'demon' in Telugu and Sanskrit. Ancient Indians may have inverted the consonants 'n' and 't' in the name Mezentius of the ancient Italian legend and interpreted it to be Mazza Danuja. In Telugu and Sanskrit, Mazza means 'bone marrow'. The name Moolaka of the Indian legend is cognate with Moolaga which also means 'bone marrow' in Telugu. The town where Bhaavana met Bhadra was called Arca in the Indian legend, which is cognate with Arx - the ancient citadel of Rome. The Italian towns which have names phonetically similar to Arca are Arco near lake Garda and Aricia near Rome. Arca is an epithet of Sun in Telugu and Sanskrit; it also means people with bright mind. Many fairy tales speak of west as the home of Sun where he rests for the night. The same thing is expressed by the sentence in the Indian legend which says that in a town near 'the hill where the sun sets', the demon Kaaluva lives, and thus indicates the land to be Europe. Bhadra was said to be the daughter of Sun which may also mean that she was a princess of solar dynasty. Latinus was said to have descended through Circe, daughter of the Sun. The name 'Circe' is cognate with 'Surya' which means 'Sun' in Telugu and Sanskrit. King Latinus was said to wear on his head a coronet of twelve gold rays as an emblem of his ancestor the Sun (12.163-164). The Hundu astrology says that the Sun's path along the zodiac should be divided into 12 regions called the signs, and the Sun is exalted in the first sign of the zodiac which represents the top of the head in the human body. In medieval Europe, some kings like Louis the XIV of France claimed that they were sun kings because the Sun god granted them their position. The king's ritualistic waking up and retiring to bed were attended by the nobility to draw a parallel with the rising and setting of the sun. A similar custom may have existed in ancient Italy. The cuirass (breastplate) of Roman armor symbolized imperial power. The name cuirass is cognate with Surya (the Sun) in Telugu. In Hindu astrology, the right breast in the human body represents the sign Leo whose ruler is the Sun. Ancient Greek legends speak of some royal families and warrior chiefs of Europe wearing feline skins as a mark of nobility. Bhaavana may have wandered in search of his ancestors whose chiefs were wearing feline skins. Tiger skins are considered holy in some families of Andhras even today. Bhadra is cognate with Tiber, the river of Italy. The sons of Bhaavana were said to have become sages and priests. Aeneid says that the son of Aeneas was a priest clothed in immaculate vestments (12.168). Evander was son of nymph Carmentis; the name is cognate with Markandeya. Bhaavana became the divine ancestor of weaving castes among the Andhras. Aeneas was said to have been regarded as a god after his death and was given the tittle 'Iuppiter Indiges' (Gray 1916:306); the word 'Indiges' probably suggests his Indian origin. Brutus was reputed to be the first king and founder of Briton. He is known to be the great-grand son of Aeneas. The name Brutus is cognate with Bhaarata who was said to be one of the descendants of Bhaavana. The names Brutus and Bhaarata are cognate with Amdhra, another name of Telugu language. The other descendants of Bhaavana were said to have been sent to many countries in the world. Iulus was the son of Aeneas, and through him by that name the gens Julii traced its descent. The descendants of Bhaavana were called by the generic name Saali, and their sub-divisions at present are Padma Saali, Pattu Saali and Saali castes. The name Julii is cognate with Saali. Maharshi Brigu, the mind born son of Brahma, was the first ancestor of Saali people and they were Brahmins like other descendants of Maharshi Brigu. Since Sage Bhavana has gone to a foreign land and ate non-vegetarian food, he was degraded to become a Sudra (fourth caste). All the descendants of Sage Bhavana are now treated as Sudras in the Hindu society.



A Mesopotamian legend says that civilization was brought to Mesopotamia by a race of people headed by Iannes (or Oannes) who was a divine person having head and feet of a man. They sailed across the Persian Gulf to the city of Eridu. There Iannes instructed people in writing, the arts and various sciences. He taught men how to build places of worship, how to till the soil and how to fashion the implements and tools they needed. The name Iannes of the legend is cognate with Aaniya. Kondratov wrote that the Dravidians may have been the first to settle in the Tigris and Euphrates area preceding the Sumarians, whose civilization is usually regarded as the oldest in world (Kondratov 1974:132). He presented phonetic similarity between some Ubaid words and Dravidian words to support his view (Kondratov 1974:137).


Modern studies say that, during Palaeolithic age, skin garments were worn in Northern Europe. However, woolen garments were known to have been used in Southern Europe in that age. Many fine bone needles found in this area may have been used to make woven garments. The Andhra legend says that Bhaavana used the bones of Moolaka to make instruments necessary for weaving woolen fabrics. This shows that the legend belongs to Palaeolithic age. The Avon region in Britain was famous for it's wool. The name Avon is cognate with 'vunni' in Telugu meaning wool. Some experts agree that primitive gins and spinning wheels originated in India (Spier 1970;83-86). The earliest samples of cotton fabric were found at the excavations in the Indus Valley. Samples of the most ancient mordant-dyeing technique for cotton fabrics, Kalamkari, were also found there. The Kalamkari technique was perfected in South India and the traditional method continues till date. The Puranas describe spinning and weaving which approach most nearly to the modern concept of an industry. The industry involved specialized factories working in association with domestic industries and paid at piece rates. The fibers used for spinning and the fabrics produced were of the most varied types, unparalleled in any other country of that period. Indians were noted for their exceptional skills in spinning and weaving which have not been surpassed by peoples of other lands even in historical past. Pliny's Natural History informs that India exported to Rome large quantities of sheep wool, woolen fabrics, colored carpets, silks, and cotton clothes ranging from coarse canvas and calicoes to muslins of the finest texture (Mookerji 1912:91).


6. Ancient Roman Religion


Connected with the cult of Aeneas was that of Anna Perenna. When the plebians took refuge on the Mons Sacer, she brought them food to eat in the guise of an old woman (Larousse 1968:215). Annona was the goddess who was prayed to have abundance in grain. In India, Goddess Anna Purna is peculiar to the Andhras. Many Andhra women are named after this goddess. The name is rarely heard outside Andhra Pradesh. A legend connected to her says that once upon a time in remote antiquity there was famine in the regions around Varanasi and food became scarce. Goddess Parvati came in the guise of an old woman named Anna Purna and gave food to the people who took up residence in the holy temple city Varanasi. Andhras pray to goddess Anna Purna to give abundance in grain. The rainfall in India is more than the total rainfall in the lands of rest of the world. While peasants of other countries broke their backs to reap one harvest, the Indians produced two or three bumper crops a year since ancient times. The harvest in the Krishna and Kauvery river basins alone was large enough to meet the needs of rest of India during periods of crisis. The crop output per unit area of land in this area was not surpassed by any other country in the world until the invention of modern agricultural machinery and related equipment. Visitors from Europe and China have long since praised that India was 'land of plenty'. The following may be considered for phonetic affinity:


Anna - T. annam, 'cooked cerial food'
Annona - T. annam, 'cooked cereal food'
Sacer Mons - * scrmn, ** scmrn, T. Varanasi
Perenna - T. purna, 'completeness, plenty'


Apollo was called master of music and archery. His name is cognate with 'villu' (bow) and 'pillana' (flute) in Telugu. The Telugu word 'kroalu' (wind instrument) is cognate with cornu in Latin, bugle and ocarina in English, and with great 'lur' of ancient Scandinavia. The word 'kroalu' was coined from Telugu word 'Gaali Ara' to indicate enclosed space into which air is blown. But Apollo was also known as the Sun god. Apollo is cognate with 'vella' (whiteness, white light) in Telugu and the god of white light is the Sun. The Puranas say that the Sun is a star. In Hindu astrology, the sign showing the archer is called Dhanu (bow). It also says that the Dhanu sign represents the center of our galaxy. Apollo was also called god of agriculture; 'polav'(agricultural land) in Telugu is cognate with Apollo. We know that agriculture is dependant on the white light of the Sun.


Faunus was said to be one of the first kings of Latium. He gave laws to the still barbarous Italian tribes and invented the rustic pipe (Larousse 1968:207). The Luperci were his nude priests. Connected with them were another group of twelve members called Salii. The They taught dancing and singing. Nox was goddess of night. The Latin word 'matutinus' was derived from Matutu, goddess of dawn. Telugu word for twelve is 'pannendu'.The following Telugu words may be considered for phonetic affinity:


Faunus - * fns, ** fsn, CT. naayav, 'law, justice', T. venu, 'flute',
Baapaniaya (the Telugu name of Bhaavana)
Luperci - * lprc, ** lpcr, T disamola, 'nude'
Salii - T. soori, 'the Sun or the god who creates the 12 signs
of the zodiac', ** ls, T. raasi, the word for 'sign of
the zodiac', also 'the goup of stars or suns forming a sign'
Nox - T. nisi, 'night'
Matutu - T. poddu, 'light of the Sun', L. matutinus,
F. matin, I. mattino, T. podduna, 'matutinal'
Pannendu T. - ** ntpn, T. neta pani, 'weaving'



In Roman mythology, Ianus (Janus) was the patron of all beginnings including ship building and weaving. He was said to have civilized the wild inhabitants of Italy and established the Age of Gold. Ovid wrote that a figure of ship appears on the coins of Ianus because he came to the Tuscan river in a ship after wandering over the world (Fasti 1.230-236). Ianus was always the first invoked in all Roman religious ceremonies under the title of Father (Hastings :10.825). Under the name Portunus, he was the god of harbors. Some of the earliest coins of ancient India were found in Andhra Pradesh. The oldest Indian coins to depict ships were those minted by Telugu kings. The forest regions lying very near the sea coast of Andhra contain timber of superior variety particularly suitable for ship building. As a solar god, Ianus presided over daybreak under the name Matutinus. He was the god of all doorways. His insignia were thus the key which opens and closes the door (Larousse 1968:202). In the Forum, he had a temple whose gates were open in times of war and closed in times of peace. In Telugu, Ayanam means doors which were open in times of war and closed in times of peace. The two faced image of Ianus was called Bifrons (Larousse 1968:200). One of his faces was shown turned toward the east and the other toward the west probably to represent the marriage of eastern and western peoples. (Gray 1916:297) He was said to have married an Italian princess. So obscure was the origin of Ianus that the Roman poets took all manner of liberties with him (Gray 1916:297). His legend may have come down through oral tradition of one of the Italian tribes outside Latium. Ianus was called Anius by the Etruscans (Parrinder 1971:137). The names Ianus and Anius are cognate with Aaniaya. The name Venilia, who was said to be the wife of Ianus, may have been a corrupted form of the name Lavinia. Ianus was said to have hailed from Perrhaiboian land. The following may be considered for phonetic affinity:


Portunus - * prtns, ** ptrns, T. vodarevu, 'ship harbor'
Matutinus - T. podduna, 'day-break, morning'
Ianus - T. nisha, 'drunkness', * ns, ** sn, T. chevi, 'key'
Bifrons - * bfrns, ** bfnrs, T. Bhaavana Rishi, 'Sage Bhaavana'
Lavinia Latium - T. Puli Tolu, 'tiger skin'
Perrhaiboia - * prrhb, ** bhrrp, ** brhrp, Aamdhram (the other name of
Telugu)


Most of the ancient deities of Rome had neither human form nor human heart with its virtues and vices. They were called Numina or super natural powers who presided over a limited but necessary operation and had no existence apart from that operation. Juno Lucetia was the celestial feminine principle of which Jupiter was the masculine counter part (Larousse 1968:203). Minerva was the goddess of handicrafts. Her temple on the Aventine Hill in Rome was a center for organizations of skilled craftspeople. The following Telugu words may be considered for phonetic affinity:


Lucetia - * lct, ** ltc, T. stree, 'female, also designates celestial
feminine principle in philosophy'
Jupiter - * jptr, ** jtpr, ** prjt, T. purushudu, 'male, also
designates celestial masculine principle in philosophy'
Minerva - * mnrv, ** mnvr, T. pani vaaru, 'crafts people'
Aventine - *vntn, **ntvn, naetapani, 'weaving work'



Jupiter was a guardian of oaths (Larousse 1968:206). As Dius Fidius, he was the deity in whose name oaths were taken. The full moon was sacred to Jupiter. The moon is a male god in Hindu mythology. When rain was sorely needed, Jupiter's aid was sought under the name Elicius. With Jupiter Dapalis, Vesta presided over the preparation of meals (Larousse 1968:204). Toga virilis was worn by men over 14 years of age. Roman women wore an outer garment known as a stola. The following Telugu words may be considered for phonetic affinity:


Iupiter - T. vottu, 'oath'
Fidius - T. vottu, 'oath'
Elicius - * lc, ** cl, T. jallu, 'rain'
Dapalis - * dpl, ** pdl, T. vamtalu, 'preparation of meals'
Vesta - * vst, ** svt, T. kumpati, 'coal stove'
toga virilis - * tgvrl, ** vtlrg, T. padnaalugu, 'fourteen'
stola - CT. seeralu, T. cheeralu, 'sarees'


The genius of a woman was called her Juno (Hastings :10.820). Juno was said to be the goddess of motherhood. Juno Pronuba was said to protect marriages. The ancient Romans had the tradition of lifting the bride over the door threshold at the time of marriage. The Andhras also have the tradition of lifting the bride over the door threshold. The maternal uncles of the bride carry her in a basket over the door threshold at the time of marriage. Juno Domiduca (Larousse 1968:203) conducted the bride to the house of her husband and saw that she crossed the threshold. The Andhras have the tradition of worshiping the threshold as a goddess. Juno Caprotina (Larousse 1968:204) was the goddess of fertility; the name becomes cognate with Garbhaa Daana ('semen donation or pregnancy donation') in Telugu after inverting the second and third consonants. The Andhras treat marital coitus as a sacred rite. The Garbhaa Daana ceremony is conducted on an auspicious day during an auspicious period after chanting sacred Mantras. Juno Lucina (Larousse 1968:203) protected the pregnant wife. Juno Ossipago strengthened the bones of the infant (Larousse 1968:203). Carna assisted development of infant's flesh. Adeona taught it to walk (Larousse 1968:217). The words 'money' and 'mint' were said to have originated from Moneta because coins of money were first minted at the temple of Juno Moneta. The Andhras have the tradition of worshiping money as a goddess. Juno Jovino is connected with moon. The date of the Nones was declared as soon as the new moon appeared and Juno Covella was invoked (Hastings :10.825). The following Telugu words may be considered for phonetic affinity:


Juno - T. yoni, 'female genital organ'; T. yeenu, 'yean'
Pronuba - T. parinayam, 'marriage'
Domiduca - * dmdc, ** cdmd, cadama deo, T. gadapa, 'door threshold'
Lucina - * lcn, ** cln, T. garbham, 'pregnancy'
Ossipago - T. sisu emuka, 'infant's bone'
Carna - * crn, ** cnr, T. kanda, 'muscle'
Adeona - * dn, ** nd, T. nadaka, 'walking'
Moneta - * mnt, ** tnm, T. dhanam, 'money'
Jovino - * jvn, ** nvj, T. amavaasa, 'no moon day'
Nones - T. amavaasa, 'no moon day'
Covella - T. jabilli, 'moon'


The Latin word 'matures' and the Telugu cognate word 'samarta' indicate a girl reaching puberty. The two words are also cognate with 'chandra' (the Moon) in Telugu. We know that the menses of women are connected with cycles of moon. The Latin word 'pubertas' and the English word 'puberty' are cognate with 'chandrama' (the Moon) in Telugu. Prema was said to aid husband to embrace his wife on his wedding night (Eliade 1987:448); the name is cognate with Prema ('love') in Telugu and Sanskrit. The Hindus have the tradition of marriages arranged by elders. The percentage of love marriages is very low among the Andhras even in modern times. Consequently, a husband is expected to love his wife from the nuptials night onwards. According to Ovid, Sementivae was a festival celebrated when the seed is cast and the field becomes fertile (Rose 1959;219). By the time of classical Latin literature, the real native ideas of the primitive Romans either became entirely obsolete or survived only in a fossilized form in rites of which the original meaning had been completely forgotten (Hastings :10.820). Seemantam (CT. Seemantav) is a celebration, in the married life of Andhra women, conducted on an auspicious day after the seed is cast and a woman becomes fertile. Carmentes was connected with a pregnant woman and her safe delivery. (Parrinder 1971:138) Tellus personified the numen (and not our planet) possessed by cows (or other animals) which is needed to produce offspring (Rose 1959;166-167). She was the goddess of fecundity and watched over procreation of children (Larousse 1968:205). The name Tellus is cognate with Thalli ('mother or she who produced an offspring') in Telugu. The Andhras have the tradition of treating motherhood as a sacred act. Tellus was an object of worship at marriage (Rose 1959;219). It is a tradition of the Andhra elders to bless a woman after marriage that she may become mother of many children. The customs of the Andhras do not permit a woman to become mother without marriage. Cunia was said to be a goddess who looked after the child in the cradle (Ross 1959;190). The following Telugu words may be considered for phonetic affinity:


Sementivae - T. seemantav
Carmentes - T. garbhavati, 'pregnant'
Cunia - T. Coona, 'a new born baby'
Tellus - T. thalli, 'mother'


Mars was said to be the god of war. In the Regia, the ancient palace of Roman kings, there were certain holy spears. Rose says that it sounds somewhat strange to modern notions that the spears themselves seem to have borne the name of the god Mars (Rose 1959;169). The Andhras have the tradition of storing holy arms of god in a special room of the temple. Venus, the goddess of love, was an old Italian deity of garden. The horses were given special treatment at the Equirria festival (Hastings :10.826). Vulcan was the black smith of the gods who used to work in the volcanos. Modern astronomy knows that the tallest volcano in the Sun family of planets is located on the planet Mars. The Telugu and Sanskrit name for planet Mars is Mangala. The following Telugu words may be considered for phonetic affinity:


Mars - T. poru, 'war', T. barise, 'spear'
spear - * spr, ** srp, T. barise, 'spear'
Venus - T. vanum, 'garden', * vns, ** nvs, T. olapu, 'love'
Equirria - T. gurram, 'horse'
Vulcan - ** cnml, T. kammari, 'black smith'; ** cnvl, T. agni mala,
'volcano'
Mangala - ** gnml, T. agni mala, 'volcano'


Consus was said to be mighty in seed sowing, the name is cognate with Ginja ('seed') in Telugu. Vervactor was said to represent first ploughing of land (Fowler 1933;161). The festival of first ploughing of land in the year, when the rains begin, is called Yeruvaaka in Telugu. Y of this name may have become V in Vervactor. Many agricultural divinities of ancient Roman religion were given the suffix 'tor'. The function of Conditor was to look after the grain in the store-place. The function of Promitor was taking out of the corn from its store-place to make flour. In Telugu, the suffix 'dar' which has similar sound as 'tor' is used for some words. Jameen Dar means owner of many agricultural lands. The following Telugu words may be considered for phonetic affinity after removing the suffix 'tor':


Condi - * cnd, ** cdn, T. gaadem, 'grain storage place'
Promi - * prm, ** pmr, T. pimdi, 'flour'


Diana was a goddess of woods and hunting. Lara was the mother of Lares. She talked so much that Jupiter cut out her tongue. Woolen dolls which were hung on doors in honor of the Lares were called Maniae. Genius protected all groups of people and the places of their group activities (Larousse 1968:213). The Lares symbolized the house (Larousse 1968:219). Lares Compitales were the object of worship of the whole family. (Hastings :10.845) The genius was in primitive conception the generative power of man, and was conceived to be all his masculine vigor of body and mind (Hastings :10.845). Genius presided over marriage and over the nuptial bed, and was hence called Genialis. The Genius was first represented as a serpent (Larousse 1968:217). In the Hindus, the Kulam ('caste') controls a group of persons and their group activity. It is an endogamous unit within which all marriages must be performed. The Andhras have a tradition that they belong to a serpent race. Penates were said to be dwellers in stores or at least un-distinguishable from the food-supplies in the store. The farmer was supposed to know how to serve these spirits looking upon them as co-habitants of his own dwelling (Fowler 1933;116). The pig, after the proper portions had been given to Penates, formed the staple of the family dinner (Rose 1959;176). Penates was venerated in the Regia where the sacred fire burned and the statue of Vesta stood. Bonus Eventus was at first a rural god in charge of the harvest. Auanona was connected with the arrival of corn. Felicitas personified happy events. Compitales was originally placed where two fields joined. Terminus presided over the fixing of boundaries and frontiers (Larousse 1968:214). Flora was the goddess of budding fruit trees. A rose festival was celebrated in her honor. She was associated with Robigo. Feronia watched over spring flowers. Soranus was a solar god. Cacus and Caca were said to preside over fire (Rose 1959;228) During the festival of Feronia, members of Hirpini family would walk bare-footed over glowing coals without burning themselves (Larousse 1968:210). The Indians have the tradition of religious fire walk in which people walk over glowing coals without burning themselves.


The following Telugu words may be considered for phonetic affinity:


Diana - T. adavi, 'forest'; ** nd, T. vaeta, 'hunting'
Lares - * lrs, T. naaluka, 'tongue', ** srl, T. yillu, 'house'
Maniae - T. vunni. 'wool'
Genius - T. kulam, 'caste', ** ng, T. naaga, 'serpent', T. moga, 'male'
Genialis - * gnl, ** gln, T. kulam, 'caste'
Penates - T. panta, 'harvest', T. pandi, 'a pig', T. manta, 'fire'
Flora - * flr, ** frl, T. pootalu, 'buddings of fruit trees'
Robigo - * rbg, ** brg, T. gulaabi, 'rose'
Feronia - * frn, ** fnr, T. poovulu, 'flowers', T. manta, 'fire'
Soranus - * srns, ** srsn, T. sooryam, 'the sun'
Cacus - T. caca, 'heat'
Caca - T. caca, 'heat'
Hirpini - * hrpn, ** hprn, T. gundam, 'fire pit, usually refers to the
one in which fire walk is conducted'
Eventus - T. panta, 'harvest'
Auonona - T. annam, 'cooked cereal food'
Compitales - * cmptl, ** cmtpl, mera-poli, T. polimera, 'boundary'
Terminus - * trmn, ** tmrn, T. polimera, 'boundary'
Felicitas - * flct, ** fltc, T. panduga, 'celebration or festival'


Neptunus was said to be the god of fresh water, and Salacia was his cult-partner who makes water spring up from the ground (Rose 1959;227). Bona Dia was connected with earth's spring fertility and was honored in May (Larousse 1968:208); the name is cognate with Vaana Deva ('rain god') in Telugu. Of all lands in the world, only the sub-continent has a yearly rainy season. The monsoon rains begin at the end of May in South India. Mercury was the god of travelers. Pluto was the god of the nether regions:


Neptunus - * nptn, ** pntn, T. vaana deva, 'rain god'
Salacia - T. jala, 'water which springs up from the ground'
Mercury - T. baata saari, 'traveler'
Pluto - T. patala, 'the nether region'


The ancient Latins occupied the hills, which were easier to defend, in autonomous groups more or less bound to one another, a system termed Vicatim ('by small village') (Eliade 1987:446); the term is cognate with Goodem which in Telugu means a small village on a hill consisting of an autonomous group of huts. Each Goodem has a few rules of its own for social behavior. Several such Goodems have common religion and traditions.


The word 'oracle' is cognate with Erukala, a caste in Telugu people who work as traditional oracles for sooth-saying. The cap of Flamines was called Apex. The Roman priest were called Pontifices ('bridge builders'). The first month of the year in the ancient Roman calendar was called Martius. The reverse consonant form of the name is cognate with Chaitram, the first month of the Telugu calendar. This month usually occurs from the middle of March to the middle of April. The hidden meaning of the name Chaitram is that it's consonants are the same as 'paadarasa'(element mercury). Modern science knows that rains with mercury vapor are most frequent in the period indicated by Chaitram. Astrology was supposed to have come to Europe from the east. In the Aeneid, Circe was the daughter of the Sun, and her palace has lions in captivity. In astrology, the Sun is the ruler of the sign Leo. This sentence gives the clue that the ancient Europeans were taught some topics of astrology by the Andhras. The word 'calculate' was derived from a word in Latin which means 'pebbles' since pebbles were first used for calculations. The following Telugu words may be considered for phonetic affinity:


Apex - T. paaga, 'cap'
Pontifices - T. vontena, 'bridge', T. pantulayya, 'priest'
calculate - * clclt, ** clctl, T. gulakaraallu, 'pebbles'


The Romans believed that the soul, at the moment of death, was seized by two groups of genii. The first were malevolent and were led by Charun. The second group were benevolent and were led by Vanth. Their dispute symbolized the struggle between the good and evil (Larousse 1968:211). The Hindus believe that, after death, soul of an evil person goes to Naraka ('hell') and that of a good person goes to Divam ('heaven'). The names Charun and Vanth are cognate with reverse consonant forms of Naraka and Divam respectively.


The name Markandeya may have been interpreted by the Roman writers as Tro Anchisum which subsequently became Troy Anchises. Samaya was a son of Bhaavana; the name is cognate Ascanius, the son of Aenias. The Aeneid says that Oentrians settled in the antique land, which the Greeks call Hesperia, and named it, after their first founder, Italy (1.530- 533). The name Oentrian is cognate with Aandhram, the other name of Telugu people. When the British visited the land of the Andhras for the first time, they called Telugu language "Italian of the east". The ancient language of Italy which existed prior to Latin was Italic; the name is cognate with Telugu.


Apollo was also called Phoebus; the name is cognate with Baapaniaya. Some epithets of Apollo, such as Grannus (boiling) and Borvo (heat) connect him with healing and especially with the therapeutic powers of thermal and other springs; an area of religious belief that retained much of its ancient vigor in Celtic lands throughout the Middle Ages and even to the present time. Ogmios was a Celtic god of wheat fields. Sul was a goddess of the hot springs at Bath in Britain. The name Maponos (Divine Youth) occurs mainly in northern Britain. He appears in medieval Welsh literature as Mabon, son of Modron or Matrona (Divine Mother). The name Maponos is cognate with Baapaniaya. The name Markandeya is cognate with Latin Brigantia and Celtic Brigant concerned with craftsmanship. Probably, the name Markandeya appeared to be a feminine name to the writers of Celtic legends. Many Puranas say that Maharshi Markandeya performed great austerity and was granted eternal youth hood. In Celtic mythology, Brigit, daughter of Dagda, was goddess of crafts, divination, poetry, fertility, and healing,


Grannus - * grn, ** nrg, T. marugu, 'boiling'
boil - ME. boyle, T. marugu, 'boiling'
Borvo - * brv, ** vrb, T. vedimi, 'heat'
warm - OE. wearm, T. vedimi, 'heat'
Ogmios Deo - * gmd, ** gdm, T. godhuma, 'wheat'

Sul - T. jala, 'water which springs up from the ground'
wheat - OE. hwaete, ** htw, T. godhuma, 'wheat'
Maponus - * mpns, ** mnps, T. youvanam, 'youth-hood'
Dhumra - * dmr, ** mtr, T. maatru, 'mother', Modron
Brigit - * brgt, ** btgr, T. naeta gaadu, 'expert in weaving'
Dagda - * dgd, ** gdd, T. gudda, 'cloth'


Bard was known as a Celtic poet. The words 'ballad', 'balada' (S.),
'lied' (Gm.) and 'melody' are connected with poetic songs.

These words
are cognate with 'padaalu' (poetic songs written in traditional style) in Telugu. The ancients of Britain were Celts. The name Celt, on reading in the reverse direction gives the word Telugu.


7. Inferences


Ayithareya Brahmana of the Rig Veda mentions the Andhras. Some ancient Sanskrit texts describe the Andhras as an ancient tribe and as one of the ancestors (Bhattacharyya 1988:39). The popular saying in Andhra Pradesh is "Desa bhaashalandu Telugu lessa"; Telugu is the best among Indian languages. Of all languages in the world, Telugu has the largest number of alphabets. We know that Sanskrit was not the mother tongue of any tribe in India. It's very name says that it is a reformation of an existing language. In recent times, Esperanto was created to serve as an artificial international language in Europe. In the olden days, Sanskrit was created for the same purpose. Who could have been the authors of Sanskrit? The name Amdhra gives the hidden meaning Aadi Amara, the first Sanskrit or the former language from which Sanskrit was made. However, it is upto researchers to find out who was best qualified for this task in the olden days. Which language of India contains the largest number of Sanskrit words? Telugu. The language of the old Telugu texts contains more than 80 percent of Sanskrit words. This percentage is the highest for all old books written in the regional languages in India. The Andhras are the only people in India to use Sanskrit for names of months and other terminolgy words in the Hindu calander. Which language of India has the most perfect pronunciation? Telugu. An American university wanted the vocal recordings of the vedas. They have gone all over India to find who would recite the vedas with highest perfection in pronunciation. They finally got the recordings from the pundits at Tirupathi in Andhra Pradesh. Some ancient texts in India say that Bhaarathi (goddess of speech and knowledge) spoke Telugu when she started speaking words and Sanskrit when she reached puberty.


8. References


[1] G. Bongard Levin, A. Vigasin, The Image of India, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1984.
[2] The Aeneid of Virgil, Translated by C.D.Lewis, Hogarth Press, London, 1954.
[3] P.Adinaaraayana Swamy, Sree Padma Saakha Vamsa Pradeepika, Dharma Varam, 1968.
[4] J.Seshaadri Sarma, Sree Bhaavanaa Rushi Mahaatyam, Bahoottama Publications, Kaakinaada, 1969.
[5] H.J.Rose, Religion in Greece and Rome, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1959.
[6] W.Warde Fowler, The Religious Experience of the Roman People, Macmillan & Co., London, 1933.
[7] R.F.G.Spier, From the Hand of Man: Primitive and Preindustrial Technologies, Houghton Miffilin Co., Boston, 1970.
[8] L.H.Gray (Ed.), The Mythology of All Races, Vol. 1, Marshall Jones Co., Boston,1916.
[9] A. Kondratov, The Riddles of Three Oceans, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1974.
[10] R. Mookerji, A History of Indian Shipping, Longmans, Green & Co., London, 1912.
[11] New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology, Hamlyn, London, 1968.
[12] M. Eliade (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Religion, Macmillan, New York, 1987.
[13] J. Hastings, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, Vol. 10, T & T.Clark, Edinburgh, 1958.
[14] N.N.Bhattacharyya, Ancient Indian History and Civilisation, Manohar Publications, New Delhi, 1988.
[15] G.Parrinder (Ed), Man and his Gods: Encyclopedia of the World's Religions, Hamlyn, London, 1971.




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